Livestock vaccination campaigns are often favorites of the humanitarian aid community because they engage a lot of local people, can spend large sums of money relatively quickly, and popular sentiment is that “you can’t go wrong with vaccinations, right?”
The answer, as with most things, is that you CAN go wrong with vaccinations if the specific circumstances are not carefully considered.
Mass vaccination of livestock is a potent tool in controlling and preventing diseases, safeguarding what in many societies comprises the most important single family resource. On the other hand, poorly thought-out campaigns may provide little benefit for animal owners. At worst, they can render animals even more vulnerable to disease.
Fellata nomad milking her cows in Maban, South Sudan. The Fellata cattle breed does not tolerate strangers approaching too closely and are known as a wild breed by other peoples. But their owners handle and walk among them with no trouble. Charles Hoots
Trypanosomes are single-celled protozoan organisms, one species of which causes sleeping sickness in people and several of which cause a similar disease in animals. In its “classic” form, the animal disease is spread from wildlife to cattle in much of sub-Saharan Africa through the bite of a tsetse fly, resulting in a slow wasting away of the affected livestock (but with typically no signs of illness in the wildlife hosts).
I arrived in northeast South Sudan in 2013 to work on a livestock project for the German branch of Veterinarians Without Borders. The animal form of sleeping sickness (which I will call AAT, short for African animal trypanosomosis) was at the time a major problem in the herds of the 120,000 refugees from neighboring Sudan living in four camps in the area. But the situation was far from “classic.”
Nearly a quarter-century of civil war had led to the almost complete elimination of large wildlife species that tend to act as reservoir hosts for trypanosomes. In addition, tsetse fly vectors, the poster child for sleeping sickness in people and animals, were nowhere to be found. Our subsequent joint effort with the community to control this disease taught me valuable lessons in how good intentions can go awry in animal (and human) health planning through failure to consider every aspect.
Community-based animal health worker among Fellata nomads of Sudan/South Sudan Charles Hoots
With 70% of emerging infectious diseases estimated by the World Health Organisation to be zoonotic in nature, livestock and wildlife often fall ill from these pathogens before they spread to people. As a result, veterinarians and other animal health workers (AHWs) can play a crucial role in early detection of emerging zoonotic diseases, especially in remote areas of poorer countries where human health care infrastructure is sparse or absent.
Yet, despite significant numbers of livestock in rural areas of developing countries, AHWs are few and far between, unable to generate sufficient income to make a living. Well-intentioned policies from national and international organizations in some cases end up driving AHWs away, or into more lucrative pursuits. As a result, animal disease outbreaks, many with public health impacts, may run their course for weeks before being detected and addressed by the authorities.